Diagnostic testing: The diagnosis and staging of prostate cancer requires:
• Fine needle biopsy of a prostate mass;
• Digital rectal examination (DRE);
• Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) blood test;
• Transrectal (TRUS) ultrasound;
• Radionuclide bone scans;
• Computerized tomography (CT scan);
• Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI);
• ProstaScint Scan;
• Lymph node biopsy; and
• Laparoscopic biopsy.
Physical findings: People with advanced prostate cancer-hormone refractory disease may present with:
• Blood in the urine;
• Pain in the hips, back (spine), or chest (ribs);
• Weakness or numbness in the legs or feet; and
• Loss of bladder or bowel control.