TN 18 (06-15)
104.00 Cardiovascular System (Effective date: 06/12/15)
1. What do we mean by a cardiovascular impairment?
a. We mean any disorder that affects the proper functioning of the heart or the circulatory
system (that is, arteries, veins, capillaries, and the lymphatic drainage). The disorder
can be congenital or acquired.
b. Cardiovascular impairment results from one or more of four consequences of heart
(i) Chronic heart failure or ventricular dysfunction.
(ii) Discomfort or pain due to myocardial ischemia, with or without necrosis of heart
(iii) Syncope, or near syncope, due to inadequate cerebral perfusion from any cardiac
cause, such as obstruction of flow or disturbance in rhythm or conduction resulting
in inadequate cardiac output.
(iv) Central cyanosis due to right-to-left shunt, reduced oxygen concentration in
the arterial blood, or pulmonary vascular disease.
c. Disorders of the veins or arteries (for example, obstruction, rupture, or aneurysm)
may cause impairments of the lower extremities (peripheral vascular disease), the
central nervous system, the eyes, the kidneys, and other organs. We will evaluate
peripheral vascular disease under 4.11 or 4.12 in part A, and impairments of another body system(s) under the listings for that
2. What do we consider in evaluating cardiovascular impairments? The listings in this section describe cardiovascular impairments based on symptoms,
signs, laboratory findings, response to a regimen of prescribed treatment, and functional
3. What do the following terms or phrases mean in these listings?
a. Medical consultant is an individual defined in §§404.1616(a) and 416.1016(a). This term does not include
medical sources who provide consultative examinations for us. We use the abbreviation
“MC” throughout this section to designate a medical consultant.
b. Persistent means that the longitudinal clinical record shows that, with few exceptions, the
required finding(s) has been present, or is expected to be present, for a continuous
period of at least 12 months, such that a pattern of continuing severity is established.
c. Recurrent means that the longitudinal clinical record shows that, within a consecutive 12-month
period, the finding(s) occurs at least three times, with intervening periods of improvement
of sufficient duration that it is clear that separate events are involved.
d. Appropriate medically acceptable imaging means that the technique used is the proper one to evaluate and diagnose the impairment
and is commonly recognized as accurate for assessing the cited finding.
e. A consecutive 12-month period means a period of 12 consecutive months, all or part of which must occur within the
period we are considering in connection with an application or continuing disability
f. Currently present means that the finding is present at the time of adjudication.
g. Uncontrolled means the impairment does not respond adequately to standard prescribed medical treatment.
B. Documenting Cardiovascular Impairment
1. What basic documentation do we need? We need sufficiently detailed reports of history, physical examinations, laboratory
studies, and any prescribed treatment and response to allow us to assess the severity
and duration of your cardiovascular impairment. A longitudinal clinical record covering
a period of not less than 3 months of observations and treatment is usually necessary,
unless we can make a determination or decision based on the current evidence.
2. Why is a longitudinal clinical record important? We will usually need a longitudinal clinical record to assess the severity and expected
duration of your impairment(s). If you have a listing-level impairment, you probably
will have received medically prescribed treatment. Whenever there is evidence of such
treatment, your longitudinal clinical record should include a description of the ongoing
management and evaluation provided by your treating or other medical source. It should
also include your response to this medical management, as well as information about
the nature and severity of your impairment. The record will provide us with information
on your functional status over an extended period of time and show whether your ability
to function is improving, worsening, or unchanging.
3. What if you have not received ongoing medical treatment?
a. You may not have received ongoing treatment or have an ongoing relationship with
the medical community despite the existence of a severe impairment(s). In this situation,
we will base our evaluation on the current objective medical evidence and the other
evidence we have. If you do not receive treatment, you cannot show an impairment that
meets the criteria of these listings. However, we may find you disabled because you
have another impairment(s) that in combination with your cardiovascular impairment
medically equals the severity of a listed impairment or that functionally equals the
b. Unless we can decide your claim favorably on the basis of the current evidence,
a longitudinal record is still important. In rare instances where there is no or insufficient
longitudinal evidence, we may purchase a consultative examination(s) to help us establish
the severity and duration of your impairment.
4. When will we wait before we ask for more evidence?
a. We will wait when we have information showing that your impairment is not yet stable
and the expected change in your impairment might affect our determination or decision.
In these situations, we need to wait to properly evaluate the severity and duration
of your impairment during a stable period. Examples of when we might wait are:
(i) If you have had a recent acute event; for example, acute rheumatic fever.
(ii) If you have recently had a corrective cardiac procedure; for example, open-heart
(iii) If you have started new drug therapy and your response to this treatment has
not yet been established; for example, beta-blocker therapy for dilated congestive
b. In these situations, we will obtain more evidence 3 months following the event
before we evaluate your impairment. However, we will not wait if we have enough information
to make a determination or decision based on all of the relevant evidence in your
5. Will we purchase any studies? In appropriate situations, we will purchase studies necessary to substantiate the
diagnosis or to document the severity of your impairment, generally after we have
evaluated the medical and other evidence we already have. We will not purchase studies
involving exercise testing if there is significant risk involved or if there is another
medical reason not to perform the test. We will follow sections 4.00C6, 4.00C7, 4.00C8, and 104.00B7 when we decide whether to purchase exercise testing.
We will make a reasonable effort to obtain any additional studies from a qualified
medical source in an office or center experienced in pediatric cardiac assessment.
6. What studies will we not purchase? We will not purchase any studies involving cardiac catheterization, such as coronary
angiography, arteriograms, or electrophysiological studies. However, if the results
of catheterization are part of the existing evidence we have, we will consider them
together with the other relevant evidence. See 4.00C15a in part A.
7. Will we use exercise tolerance tests (ETTs) for evaluating children with cardiovascular
a. ETTs, though increasingly used, are still less frequently indicated in children
than in adults, and can rarely be performed successfully by children under 6 years
of age. An ETT may be of value in the assessment of some arrhythmias, in the assessment
of the severity of chronic heart failure, and in the assessment of recovery of function
following cardiac surgery or other treatment.
b. We will purchase an ETT in a childhood claim only if we cannot make a determination
or decision based on the evidence we have and an MC, preferably one with experience
in the care of children with cardiovascular impairments, has determined that an ETT
is needed to evaluate your impairment. We will not purchase an ETT if you are less
than 6 years of age. If we do purchase an ETT for a child age 12 or younger, it must
be performed by a qualified medical source in a specialty center for pediatric cardiology
or other facility qualified to perform exercise tests of children.
c. For full details on ETT requirements and usage, see 4.00C in part A.
C. Evaluating Chronic Heart Failure
1. What is chronic heart failure (CHF)?
a. CHF is the inability of the heart to pump enough oxygenated blood to body tissues. This
syndrome is characterized by symptoms and signs of pulmonary or systemic congestion
(fluid retention) or limited cardiac output. Certain laboratory findings of cardiac
functional and structural abnormality support the diagnosis of CHF.
b. CHF is considered in these listings as a single category whether due to atherosclerosis
(narrowing of the arteries), cardiomyopathy, hypertension, or rheumatic, congenital,
or other heart disease. However, if the CHF is the result of primary pulmonary hypertension
secondary to disease of the lung (cor pulmonale), we will evaluate your impairment
using 3.09 in the respiratory system listings in part A.
2. What evidence of CHF do we need?
a. Cardiomegaly or ventricular dysfunction must be present and demonstrated by appropriate
medically acceptable imaging, such as chest x-ray, echocardiography (M-Mode, 2-dimensional,
and Doppler), radionuclide studies, or cardiac catheterization.
(i) Cardiomegaly is present when:
(A) Left ventricular diastolic dimension or systolic dimension is greater than 2 standard
deviations above the mean for the child's body surface area;
(B) Left ventricular mass is greater than 2 standard deviations above the mean for the
child's body surface area; or
(C) Chest x-ray (6 foot PA film) is indicative of cardiomegaly if the cardiothoracic
ratio is over 60 percent at 1 year of age or less, or 55 percent or greater at more
than 1 year of age.
(ii) Ventricular dysfunction is present when indices of left ventricular function,
such as fractional shortening or ejection fraction (the percentage of the blood in
the ventricle actually pumped out with each contraction), are greater than 2 standard
deviations below the mean for the child's age. (Fractional shortening, also called
shortening fraction, reflects the left ventricular systolic function in the absence
of segmental wall motion abnormalities and has a linear correlation with ejection
fraction. In children, fractional shortening is more commonly used than ejection fraction.)
(iii) However, these measurements alone do not reflect your functional capacity, which
we evaluate by considering all of the relevant evidence.
(iv) Other findings on appropriate medically acceptable imaging may include increased
pulmonary vascular markings, pleural effusion, and pulmonary edema. These findings
need not be present on each report, since CHF may be controlled by prescribed treatment.
b. To establish that you have chronic heart failure, we require that your medical history and physical examination describe
characteristic symptoms and signs of pulmonary or systemic congestion or of limited
cardiac output associated with the abnormal findings on appropriate medically acceptable
imaging. When a remediable factor, such as an arrhythmia, triggers an acute episode
of heart failure, you may experience restored cardiac function and a chronic impairment
may not be present.
(i) Symptoms of congestion or of limited cardiac output include easy fatigue, weakness,
shortness of breath (dyspnea), cough, or chest discomfort at rest or with activity.
Children with CHF may also experience shortness of breath on lying flat (orthopnea)
or episodes of shortness of breath that wake them from sleep (paroxysmal nocturnal
dyspnea). They may also experience cardiac arrhythmias resulting in palpitations,
lightheadedness, or fainting. Fatigue or exercise intolerance in an infant may be
manifested by prolonged feeding time, often associated with excessive respiratory
effort and sweating.
(ii) During infancy, other manifestations of chronic heart failure may include repeated
lower respiratory tract infections.
(iii) Signs of congestion may include hepatomegaly, ascites, increased jugular venous
distention or pressure, rales, peripheral edema, rapid shallow breathing (tachypnea),
or rapid weight gain. However, these signs need not be found on all examinations because
fluid retention may be controlled by prescribed treatment.
3. How do we evaluate growth failure due to CHF?
a. To evaluate growth failure due to CHF, we require documentation of the clinical
findings of CHF described in 104.00C2 and the growth measurements in 104.02C within
the same consecutive 12-month period. The dates of clinical findings may be different
from the dates of growth measurements.
b. Under 104.02C, we use the appropriate table(s) under 105.08B in the digestive system
to determine whether a child’s growth is less than the third percentile.
(i) For Children from birth to attainment of age 2, we use the weight-for-length table
corresponding to the child’s gender (Table I or Table II).
(ii) For children age 2 to attainment of of age 18, we use the body mass index (BMI)-for-age
table corresponding to the child’s gender (Table III or Table IV).
(iii) BMI is the ratio of a child’s weight to the square of his or her height. We
calculate BMI using the formulas in 105.00G2c.
D. Evaluating Congenital Heart Disease
1. What is congenital heart disease? Congenital heart disease is any abnormality of the heart or the major blood vessels
that is present at birth. Examples include:
a. Abnormalities of cardiac septation, including ventricular septal defect or atrioventricular canal;
b. Abnormalities resulting in cyanotic heart disease, including tetralogy of Fallot or transposition of the great arteries;
c. Valvular defects or obstructions to ventricular outflow, including pulmonary or aortic stenosis or coarctation of the aorta; and
d. Major abnormalities of ventricular development, including hypoplastic left heart syndrome or pulmonary tricuspid atresia with hypoplastic
2. How will we evaluate symptomatic congenital heart disease?
a. Because of improved treatment methods, more children with congenital heart disease
are living longer. Although some types of congenital heart disease may be corrected
by surgery, many children with treated congenital heart disease continue to have problems
throughout their lives (symptomatic congenital heart disease). If you have congenital
heart disease that results in chronic heart failure with evidence of ventricular dysfunction
or in recurrent arrhythmias, we will evaluate your impairment under 104.02 or 104.05. Otherwise, we will evaluate your impairment under 104.06.
b. For 104.06A2, we will accept pulse oximetry measurements instead of arterial O2, but the arterial O2 values are preferred, if available.
c. For 104.06D, examples of impairments that in most instances will require life-saving surgery
or a combination of surgery and other major interventional procedures (for example,
multiple “balloon” catheter procedures) before age 1 include, but are not limited
to, the following:
(i) Hypoplastic left heart syndrome,
(ii) Critical aortic stenosis with neonatal heart failure,
(iii) Critical coarctation of the aorta, with or without associated anomalies,
(iv) Complete atrioventricular canal defects,
(v) Transposition of the great arteries,
(vi) Tetralogy of Fallot,
(vii) Pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum,
(viii) Single ventricle,
(ix) Tricuspid atresia, and
(x) Multiple ventricular septal defects.
E. Evaluating Arrhythmias
1. What is an arrhythmia? An arrhythmia is a change in the regular beat of the heart. Your heart may seem to skip a beat
or beat irregularly, very quickly (tachycardia), or very slowly (bradycardia).
2. What are the different types of arrhythmias?
a. There are many types of arrhythmias. Arrhythmias are identified by where they occur
in the heart (atria or ventricles) and by what happens to the heart's rhythm when
b. Arrhythmias arising in the cardiac atria (upper chambers of the heart) are called
atrial or supraventricular arrhythmias. Ventricular arrhythmias begin in the ventricles
(lower chambers). In general, ventricular arrhythmias caused by heart disease are
the most serious.
3. How do we evaluate arrhythmias using 104.05?
a. We will use 104.05 when you have arrhythmias that are not fully controlled by medication, an implanted
pacemaker, or an implanted cardiac defibrillator and you have uncontrolled recurrent
episodes of syncope or near syncope. If your arrhythmias are controlled, we will evaluate
your underlying heart disease using the appropriate listing. For other considerations
when we evaluate arrhythmias in the presence of an implanted cardiac defibrillator,
b. We consider near syncope to be a period of altered consciousness, since syncope is a loss of consciousness
or a faint. It is not merely a feeling of light-headedness, momentary weakness, or
c. For purposes of 104.05, there must be a documented association between the syncope or near syncope and the
recurrent arrhythmia. The recurrent arrhythmia, not some other cardiac or non-cardiac
disorder, must be established as the cause of the associated symptom. This documentation
of the association between the symptoms and the arrhythmia may come from the usual
diagnostic methods, including Holter monitoring (also called ambulatory electrocardiography)
and tilt-table testing with a concurrent ECG. Although an arrhythmia may be a coincidental
finding on an ETT, we will not purchase an ETT to document the presence of a cardiac
4. What will we consider when you have an implanted cardiac defibrillator and you do
not have arrhythmias that meet the requirements of 104.05?
a. Implanted cardiac defibrillators are used to prevent sudden cardiac death in children
who have had, or are at high risk for, cardiac arrest from life-threatening ventricular
arrhythmias. The largest group of children at risk for sudden cardiac death consists
of children with cardiomyopathy (ischemic or non-ischemic) and reduced ventricular
function. However, life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias can also occur in children
with little or no ventricular dysfunction. The shock from the implanted cardiac defibrillator
is a unique form of treatment; it rescues a child from what may have been cardiac
arrest. However, as a consequence of the shock(s), children may experience psychological
distress, which we may evaluate under the mental disorders listings in 112.00ff.
b. Most implantable cardiac defibrillators have rhythm-correcting and pacemaker capabilities.
In some children, these functions may result in the termination of ventricular arrhythmias
without an otherwise painful shock. (The shock is like being kicked in the chest.)
Implanted cardiac defibrillators may deliver inappropriate shocks, often repeatedly,
in response to benign arrhythmias or electrical malfunction. Also, exposure to strong
electrical or magnetic fields, such as from MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), can
trigger or reprogram an implanted cardiac defibrillator, resulting in inappropriate
shocks. We must consider the frequency of, and the reason(s) for, the shocks when
evaluating the severity and duration of your impairment.
c. In general, the exercise limitations imposed on children with an implanted cardiac
defibrillator are those dictated by the underlying heart impairment. However, the
exercise limitations may be greater when the implanted cardiac defibrillator delivers
an inappropriate shock in response to the increase in heart rate with exercise, or
when there is exercise-induced ventricular arrhythmia.
F. Evaluating Other Cardiovascular Impairments
1. What is ischemic heart disease (IHD) and how will we evaluate it in children? IHD results when one or more of your coronary arteries is narrowed or obstructed or,
in rare situations, constricted due to vasospasm, interfering with the normal flow
of blood to your heart muscle (ischemia). The obstruction may be the result of an
embolus, a thrombus, or plaque. When heart muscle tissue dies as a result of the reduced
blood supply, it is called a myocardial infarction (heart attack). Ischemia is rare
in children, but when it occurs, its effects on children are the same as on adults.
If you have IHD, we will evaluate it under 4.00E and 4.04 in part A.
2. How will we evaluate hypertension? Because hypertension (high blood pressure) generally causes disability through its effects on other body
systems, we will evaluate it by reference to the specific body system(s) affected
(heart, brain, kidneys, or eyes) when we consider its effects under the listings.
We will also consider any limitations imposed by your hypertension when we consider
whether you have an impairment that functionally equals the listings.
3. What is cardiomyopathy and how will we evaluate it? Cardiomyopathy is a disease of the heart muscle. The heart loses its ability to pump blood (heart
failure), and in some instances, heart rhythm is disturbed, leading to irregular heartbeats
(arrhythmias). Usually, the exact cause of the muscle damage is never found (idiopathic
cardiomyopathy). There are various types of cardiomyopathy, which fall into two major
categories: Ischemic and nonischemic cardiomyopathy. Ischemic cardiomyopathy typically refers to heart muscle damage that
results from coronary artery disease, including heart attacks. Nonischemic cardiomyopathy
includes several types: Dilated, hypertrophic, and restrictive. We will evaluate cardiomyopathy
under 4.04 in part A, 104.02, 104.05, or 111.06, depending on its effects on you.
4. How will we evaluate valvular heart disease? We will evaluate valvular heart disease under the listing appropriate for its effect
on you. Thus, we may use 4.04 in part A, 104.02, 104.05, 104.06, or an appropriate neurological listing in 111.00ff.
5. What do we consider when we evaluate heart transplant recipients?
a. After your heart transplant, we will consider you disabled for 1 year following
the surgery because there is a greater likelihood of rejection of the organ and infection
during the first year.
b. However, heart transplant patients generally meet our definition of disability
before they undergo transplantation. We will determine the onset of your disability
based on the facts in your case.
c. We will not assume that you became disabled when your name was placed on a transplant
waiting list. This is because you may be placed on a waiting list soon after diagnosis
of the cardiac disorder that may eventually require a transplant. Physicians recognize
that candidates for transplantation often have to wait months or even years before
a suitable donor heart is found, so they place their patients on the list as soon
d. When we do a continuing disability review to determine whether you are still disabled,
we will evaluate your residual impairment(s), as shown by symptoms, signs, and laboratory
findings, including any side effects of medication. We will consider any remaining
symptoms, signs, and laboratory findings indicative of cardiac dysfunction in deciding
whether medical improvement (as defined in §416.994a) has occurred.
6. How will we evaluate chronic rheumatic fever or rheumatic heart disease? The diagnosis should be made in accordance with the current revised Jones criteria
for guidance in the diagnosis of rheumatic fever. We will evaluate persistence of
rheumatic fever activity under 104.13. If you have evidence of chronic heart failure or recurrent arrhythmias associated
with rheumatic heart disease, we will use 104.02 or 104.05.
7. What is hyperlipidemia and how will we evaluate it? Hyperlipidemia is the general term for an elevation of any or all of the lipids (fats or cholesterol)
in the blood; for example, hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, and hyperlipoproteinemia.
These disorders of lipoprotein metabolism and transport can cause defects throughout
the body. The effects most likely to interfere with function are those produced by
atherosclerosis (narrowing of the arteries) and coronary artery disease. We will evaluate
your lipoprotein disorder by considering its effects on you.
8. How will we evaluate Kawasaki disease? We will evaluate Kawasaki disease under the listing appropriate to its effects on
you, which may include major coronary artery aneurysm or heart failure. A major coronary
artery aneurysm may cause ischemia or arrhythmia, which we will evaluate under 4.04 in part A or 104.05. We will evaluate chronic heart failure under 104.02.
9. What is lymphedema and how will we evaluate it?
a. Lymphedema is edema of the extremities due to a disorder of the lymphatic circulation; at its
worst, it is called elephantiasis. Primary lymphedema is caused by abnormal development
of lymph vessels and may be present at birth (congenital lymphedema), but more often
develops during the teens (lymphedema praecox). Secondary lymphedema is due to obstruction
or destruction of normal lymphatic channels due to tumor, surgery, repeated infections,
or parasitic infection such as filariasis. Lymphedema most commonly affects one extremity.
b. Lymphedema does not meet the requirements of 4.11 in part A, although it may medically equal the severity of that listing. We will
evaluate lymphedema by considering whether the underlying cause meets or medically
equals any listing or whether the lymphedema medically equals a cardiovascular listing,
such as 4.11, or a musculoskeletal listing, such as 101.02A or 101.03. If no listing is met or medically equaled, we will evaluate any functional limitations
imposed by your lymphedema when we consider whether you have an impairment that functionally
equals the listings.
10. What is Marfan syndrome and how will we evaluate it?
a. Marfan syndrome is a genetic connective tissue disorder that affects multiple body
systems, including the skeleton, eyes, heart, blood vessels, nervous system, skin,
and lungs. There is no specific laboratory test to diagnose Marfan syndrome. The diagnosis
is generally made by medical history, including family history, physical examination,
including an evaluation of the ratio of arm/leg size to trunk size, a slit lamp eye
examination, and a heart test(s), such as an echocardiogram. In some cases, a genetic
analysis may be useful, but such analyses may not provide any additional helpful information.
b. The effects of Marfan syndrome can range from mild to severe. In most cases, the
disorder progresses as you age. Most individuals with Marfan syndrome have abnormalities
associated with the heart and blood vessels. Your heart’s mitral valve may leak, causing
a heart murmur. Small leaks may not cause symptoms, but larger ones may cause shortness
of breath, fatigue, and palpitations. Another effect is that the wall of the aorta
may be weakened and stretch (aortic dilation). This aortic dilation may tear, dissect,
or rupture, causing serious heart problems or sometimes sudden death. We will evaluate
the manifestations of your Marfan syndrome under the appropriate body system criteria,
such as 4.10 in part A, or if necessary consider the functional limitations imposed by your impairment.
G. Other Evaluation Issues
1. What effect does obesity have on the cardiovascular system and how will we evaluate
it? Obesity is a medically determinable impairment that is often associated with disorders
of the cardiovascular system. Disturbance of this system can be a major cause of disability
in children with obesity. Obesity may affect the cardiovascular system because of
the increased workload the additional body mass places on the heart. Obesity may make
it harder for the chest and lungs to expand. This can mean that the respiratory system
must work harder to provide needed oxygen. This in turn would make the heart work
harder to pump blood to carry oxygen to the body. Because the body would be working
harder at rest, its ability to perform additional work would be less than would otherwise
be expected. Thus, the combined effects of obesity with cardiovascular impairments
can be greater than the effects of each of the impairments considered separately.
We must consider any additional and cumulative effects of obesity when we determine
whether you have a severe cardiovascular impairment or a listing-level cardiovascular
impairment (or a combination of impairments that medically equals a listing), and
when we determine whether your impairment(s) functionally equals the listings.
2. How do we relate treatment to functional status? In general, conclusions about the severity of a cardiovascular impairment cannot
be made on the basis of type of treatment rendered or anticipated. The amount of function
restored and the time required for improvement after treatment (medical, surgical,
or a prescribed program of progressive physical activity) vary with the nature and
extent of the disorder, the type of treatment, and other factors. Depending upon the
timing of this treatment in relation to the alleged onset date of disability, we may
need to defer evaluation of the impairment for a period of up to 3 months from the
date treatment began to permit consideration of treatment effects, unless we can make
a determination or decision using the evidence we have. See 104.00B4.
3. How do we evaluate impairments that do not meet one of the cardiovascular listings?
a. These listings are only examples of common cardiovascular disorders that we consider
severe enough to result in marked and severe functional limitations. If your severe
impairment(s) does not meet the criteria of any of these listings, we must also consider
whether you have an impairment(s) that satisfies the criteria of a listing in another
b. If you have a severe medically determinable impairment(s) that does not meet a
listing, we will determine whether your impairment(s) medically equals a listing.
(See §416.926.) If you have a severe impairment(s) that does not meet or medically
equal the criteria of a listing, we will consider whether it functionally equals the
listings. (See §416.926a.) When we decide whether you continue to be disabled, we
use the rules in §416.994a.
104.01 Category of Impairments, Cardiovascular System
104.02 Chronic heart failure while on a regimen of prescribed treatment, with symptoms and signs described in
104.00C2 and with one of the following:
A. Persistent tachycardia at rest (see Table I);
B. Persistent tachypnea at rest (see Table II) or markedly decreased exercise tolerance
C. Growth failure as required in 1 or 2:
1. For children from birth to attainment of age 2, three weight-for-length measurements that are:
a. Within a consecutive 12-month period; and
b. At least 60 days apart; and
c. Less than the third percentile on the appropriate weight-for-length table under
2. For children age 2 to attainment of age 18, three BMI-for-age measurements that are:
a. Within a consecutive 12-month period; and
b. At least 60 days apart; and
c. Less than the third percentile on the appropriate BMI-for-age table under 105.08B2.
Table I--Tachycardia at Rest
Apical heart rate (beats per minute)
Under 1 yr
1 through 3 yrs
4 through 9 yrs
10 through 15 yrs
Over 15 yrs
Table II--Tachypnea at Rest
Respiratory rate over (per minute)
Under 1 yr
1 through 5 yrs
6 through 9 yrs
Over 9 yrs
104.05 Recurrent arrhythmias, not related to reversible causes such as electrolyte abnormalities or digitalis glycoside
or antiarrhythmic drug toxicity, resulting in uncontrolled (see 104.00A3g), recurrent (see 104.00A3c) episodes of cardiac syncope or near syncope (see 104.00E3b),
despite prescribed treatment (see 104.00B3 if there is no prescribed treatment), and
documented by resting or ambulatory (Holter) electrocardiography, or by other appropriate
medically acceptable testing, coincident with the occurrence of syncope or near syncope
104.06 Congenital heart disease, documented by appropriate medically acceptable imaging (see 104.00A3d) or cardiac catheterization, with one of the following:
A. Cyanotic heart disease, with persistent, chronic hypoxemia as manifested by:
1. Hematocrit of 55 percent or greater on two evaluations 3 months or more apart within
a consecutive 12-month period (see 104.00A3e); or
2. Arterial O2 saturation of less than 90 percent in room air, or resting arterial PO2 of 60 Torr or less; or
3. Hypercyanotic spells, syncope, characteristic squatting, or other incapacitating
symptoms directly related to documented cyanotic heart disease; or
4. Exercise intolerance with increased hypoxemia on exertion.
B. Secondary pulmonary vascular obstructive disease with pulmonary arterial systolic
pressure elevated to at least 70 percent of the systemic arterial systolic pressure.
C. Symptomatic acyanotic heart disease, with ventricular dysfunction interfering very
seriously with the ability to independently initiate, sustain, or complete activities.
D. For infants under 12 months of age at the time of filing, with life-threatening
congenital heart impairment that will require or already has required surgical treatment
in the first year of life, and the impairment is expected to be disabling (because
of residual impairment following surgery, or the recovery time required, or both)
until the attainment of at least 1 year of age, consider the infant to be under disability
until the attainment of at least age 1; thereafter, evaluate impairment severity with
reference to the appropriate listing.
104.09 Heart transplant. Consider under a disability for 1 year following surgery; thereafter, evaluate residual
impairment under the appropriate listing.
104.13 Rheumatic heart disease, with persistence of rheumatic fever activity manifested by significant murmurs(s),
cardiac enlargement or ventricular dysfunction (see 104.00C2a), and other associated abnormal laboratory findings; for example, an elevated
sedimentation rate or ECG findings, for 6 months or more in a consecutive 12-month
period (see 104.00A3e). Consider under a disability for 18 months from the established
onset of impairment, then evaluate any residual impairment(s).